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Apr 19, 2017 05:47 AM 15404 Views

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1.10 Browser Support


Currently, no browsers have full HTML5 support as HTML5 has not yet been introduced as


the official standard.


However, the major browsers, such as Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Safari, Internet Explorer,


and so on, are trying to add new HTML5 features to the latest versions of the browsers.


View the Web site of Aptech Global Leaning Solutions


( aptech-worldwide.com).


Identify the header and footer on the Web site.


Create a layout of the basic structure of the body of the Web site.


2.1 Introduction


All elements in HTML5 are organized using tags. The basic tags in HTML5 include html,


head, title, meta, link, script, and body. The DOCTYPEmust be provided before


inserting the basic tags in HTML5. There are different data types, attributes, and entities


that can be applied to the tags present in HTML5. All the tags are either classified into


container tags or standalone tags. This classification is based on the use of the end tag


for a certain HTML element. HTML5 is also the preferred language for mobile application


development because of its various benefits.


This session explains the basic tags that are present in HTML5. This session also lists the


different data types, attributes, and entities of HTML5. Finally, the session explains the


advantages of using HTML5 in mobile application development.


2.2 Elements


An element organizes the content in a Web page hierarchically, which forms the basic


HTML structure. It consists of tags, attributes, and content. Tags denote the start and end


of an HTML element.


A start tag includes an opening angular bracket(). Attributes are


name/value pairs that describe the element and content format. An end tag is written


exactly as the start tag, but the forward slash(/) precedes the element name. Figure 2.1


shows an element in HTML tag.


2.3 Doctype


The DOCTYPEelement informs the browser the HTML version number of your document.


It is the first declaration in the HTML5 document before any other HTML code is written.


By using a DOCTYPE, the browser is able to be more precise in the way it interprets and


renders your pages. It is highly recommended to use a DOCTYPE at the beginning of all


HTML documents.


The new HTML5 DOCTYPE declaration is as follows:


Not only is this syntax valid for the DOCTYPEfor HTML5, but it is also the DOCTYPE for all


future versions of HTML. This DOCTYPE is compatible even with the older browsers.


The following example shows the use of the new document type specification.


Example:


2.4 Basic Tags


An HTML document is made up of different elements, tags, and attributes, which specify


the content and its format. Therefore, HTML is both a structural and presentational markup


language. Structural markup specifies the structure of the content, while the presentational


markup specifies the format.


An HTML page is saved with the .htmlextension. The basic structure of an HTML document


mainly consists of seven basic elements. These are as follows:


HTML


The HTMLelement is the root element that marks the beginning of an HTML document.


It contains the start and end tag in the form of and respectively. It is


the largest container element as it contains various other elements.


HEAD


TheHEADelement provides information about the Web page such as keywords and


language used, which is not displayed on the Web page. Keywords are important


terms existing in a Web page used by the search engines to identify the Web page


with respect to the search criterion.


TITLE


The TITLE element allows you to specify the title of the Web page under the


and tags. The title is displayed on the Title bar of the Web


browser. TheTITLEelement is included within the HEADelement.


META


The meta tag is used for displaying information about the data. In HTML5, the


content meta tag which was used for specifying the charset or character encoding


has been simplified. The new tag is as follows:


UTF-8 is the most commonly used character coding that supports many alphabets.


UTF-8 is also being promoted as the new standard.


There are several other attributes associated with the meta tag that can be used


to declare general information about the page. This information is not displayed


in the browser. Meta tags provide search engines, browsers, and Web services the


information that is required to preview or acquire a summary of the relevant data


of your document.


In HTML5, it is not very important to self-close tags with a slash at the end. Though


self-enclosing is recommended for compatibility reasons.


LINK


The tag is used to define the association between a document and an


external resource. It is used to link stylesheets. Its type attribute is used to specify


the type of link such as ‘text/css’ which points out to a stylesheet.


The typeattribute is not included in HTML5. The reason is that CSS has been declared


as the default and standard style for HTML5. So, the new link is as follows:


SCRIPT


With HTML5, JavaScript is now the standard and default scripting language. Hence,


you can remove the type attribute from the script tags too. The new script tag is as


follows:


A data type specifies the type of value assigned to the attributes and the type of content


that is to be displayed on the Web page. The different types of content include text, images,


hyperlinks, video, and audio. Data types help in identifying the type of formatting such as


color and length of data.


Text Strings


Specifies textual content, which is readable by the user.


Uniform Resource Identifiers(URIs)


Specifies the location of Web pages or network files.


Colors


Specifies the color to be applied to the content on the Web page.


Lengths


Specifies the spacing among HTML elements. Length values can be in Pixels,


Length, or MultiLength. Pixelsrefer to the smallest dot on the screen. Length


is specified as a percentage value of Pixels or available space on the screen.


MultiLengthcan be specified as Pixelsor percentage.


Content Types


Specifies the type of content to be displayed on a Web page. Examples of content


types include “text/html” for displaying text using HTML format, “image/gif”


for displaying image of a .gif format, and “video/mpg” for displaying a video file of


.mpg format. Figure 2.3 shows the different data types.


class – Specifies classnames for an element.


contextmenu– Specifies the context menu for an element.


dir– Specifies the direction of the text present for the content.


draggable– Specifies the draggable function of an element.


dropzone– Specifies whether the data when dragged is copied, moved, or linked,


when dropped.


style– Specifies the inline CSS style for an element.


title– Specifies additional information about the element.


Container and Standalone Tags


There are two types of HTML elements namely, container and standalone elements. A


container element includes the start tag, contents, sub-elements, and end tag. All the


basic HTML elements are container elements. A standalone element consists of the start


tag and attributes followed by the end tag as /> without any content.


2.9 HTML5 and Mobile Devices


HTML5 has helped to create better and richer mobile applications. For this, APIs are used


in HTML5. These APIs support advanced Web application features for mobile browsers.


HTML5 is not supported by older mobile devices. New age smartphones with Apple iOS and


Google Android as operating systems support HTML5 compliant browsers. Even Microsoft


Windows 7 for Mobile will have a newly developed browser to support HTML5 developed


Web sites and applications.


Due to the various mobile platforms available on mobile devices, development of mobile


applications is difficult. HTML5 has tried to integrate all the features to deploy mobile


applications that would be compatible in all the platforms. HTML5 provides features


such as drag-and-drop functionality, video embedding in an application, and even offline


capabilities.


As HTML5 is compatible with most mobile operating systems, upto 30% of the cost for


development for different operating systems is saved. Also, there is a reduced dependency


in third-party components, thus reducing the licensing costs. All the required components


will be readily available through the browser in HTML5.


2.9.1 Benefits of HTML5 for Mobile Development


The benefits of HTML5 for mobile developments are as follows:


HMTL5 has included APIs, hence additional plug-ins are not required for mobile


browsers.


Mobile development is easier as knowledge of only HTML5, CSS, and JavaScript is


majorly required. These are easier as compared to the other languages used for


Mobile development. The development is also faster in HTML5.


There is a rising growth for mobile applications and due to its enhanced


compatibility, HTML5 forms the foundation for developing these mobile


applications.


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