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By: narayana_health Posted Apr 14, 2022 General 90 Views

Sarcoidosis (Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease) is an inflammatory disease affecting multiple organs in our body. In sarcoidosis, tiny abnormal growths of inflammatory cells (granulomas) develop. These granulomas can occur in many parts of our body, mainly affecting the lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes. We can notice these granulomas in and around the eyes, skin, liver, heart, and brain. Granuloma in organs causes organ inflammation and various other manifestations.

What are the causes of sarcoidosis?

The exact cause of sarcoidosis is still unknown. Some researcher suggests it may be a type of autoimmune disease. It can be due to our body’s abnormal immune reaction to any trigger, such as bacterial or viral infection or chemicals.

Sarcoidosis is more common in women than men. Afro-Americans and people with a family history also have a higher predilection for the disease. It rarely affects children.

What are the signs and symptoms of sarcoidosis?

Signs and symptoms of sarcoidosis usually appear in adults (aged between 20 to 40 years). Some people do not experience any symptoms, and the disease persists throughout their life asymptomatically. The signs and symptoms vary according to the involvement of the organs. However, general symptoms of sarcoidosis are:

-Mild to moderate fever

-Fatigue and malaise

-Joint pain and muscle discomfort

-Dryness in mouth and throat

-Frequent nosebleeds

-Skin lesions and rashes

-Abdominal swelling and discomfort

Lung symptoms: lungs are the main organ affected by sarcoidosis. It starts as inflammation of the alveoli (alveolitis). Alveolitis either subsides gradually or may progress into granuloma.

The patient may experience:

-Persistent cough

-Shortness of breath

-Tightness or discomfort in the chest area

-Chest pain

Granulomas in the lung can cause narrowing of the airways, lymph nodes enlargement, inflammation, and fibrosis of lung tissues.

Skin symptoms: These symptoms may present in the sarcoidosis patients:

Painful reddish patches or nodes

Hair loss

Subtle painless deep scars

Eye symptoms: Sarcoidosis can affect any part of the eye (eyelids membrane, sclera, cornea, iris, retina, or lens). People may feel:

Dry and itchy eyes

Blurred vision

Pain or burning sensation in the eyes

Long-standing sarcoidosis may cause dry eyes, glaucoma, cataracts, or even blindness in some patients.

Nervous system symptoms: Sarcoidosis rarely affects our nervous system. Symptoms of neurological involvement include:




Nerve tissues inflammation and degeneration cause weakness, pain, sensitivity to touch, and numbness in the face, arms, and legs.

Liver symptoms: Liver involvement in sarcoidosis is quite common (about 50% to 80%). Granulomas in the liver rarely show noticeable symptoms.

Heart symptoms: Sarcoidosis rarely shows heart-related manifestation. Sarcoidosis granuloma can affect any part of the heart. It can have the following symptoms:

Chest pain


Inflammation of the lining of the heart (pericarditis)

Rarely heart failure

Kidney stones

How to diagnose sarcoidosis?

The signs and symptoms of sarcoidosis are similar to many diseases. So, to differentiate sarcoidosis, a complete physical examination and thorough patient history are a must. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis includes:

Detailed medical history of occupational and environmental exposure, family history, and medication history

Complete blood analysis

Chest X-rays for a complete picture of lungs, heart, and surrounding lymph nodes


CT-Scan for detailed information on lungs and lymph nodes

Pulmonary function tests

Biopsy of granulomas and fibrosis



Stages of sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis can affect any organ in our body, but it commonly affects our lungs. The four stages of pulmonary sarcoidosis are:

Stage 1: Swollen or enlargement of the lymph nodes surrounding the lymph and heart, but no infiltrations (blood, pus, or protein substance) in the lungs

Stage 2: Enlarged lymph nodes surrounding the heart and lungs, and infiltrates are also present in the lungs

Stage 3: Swelling of the lymph nodes is not evident, but infiltrates are present in the lung

Stage 4: The patient may have pulmonary fibrosis and scarred lung tissues

Treatment of sarcoidosis

No definite treatment regimen is available for sarcoidosis. Its symptoms gradually disappear with time. Maintaining good health practices also alleviates mild symptoms. Medicines relieve symptoms, reduce the inflammation of the tissues, and reduce the impact of granulomas. Medications are:

-Corticosteroids: Health care providers most commonly prescribe prednisone to treat sarcoidosis. It suppresses the immune response and subsides inflammation.

-Alternative treatments: for the treatment of other organs’ involvement:

-Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)

-Antimalarial agents

Sarcoidosis has a better prognosis, as it generally improves its own. It rarely shows complications. If you are experiencing any symptoms that do not subside, immediately contact your doctor for proper treatment.

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